CAPAZ | milestones
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milestones

Bundespräsident Steinmeier zu Gast im CAPAZ Institut

Bundespräsident Steinmeier in Begleitung vom akademischen Leiter des CAPAZ Instituts und Frau Michelle Müntefering. Foto: Luis Enrique Sierra/CAPAZ.

Im Rahmen seines Staatsbesuchs in Kolumbien und Ecuador besuchte der Bundespräsident Frank-Walter Steinmeier am 12. Februar 2019 das Deutsch-Kolumbianische Friedensinstitut – CAPAZ.

Prof. Dr. Stefan Peters, akademischer Direktor des CAPAZ, empfing Bundespräsident Steinmeier im Museum Claustro de San Agustín in Bogotá, dem Sitz des CAPAZ. Beide tauschten Informationen über die Arbeit von CAPAZ in Kolumbien und Deutschland aus.

Das CAPAZ Institut ist mit der politischen Arbeit Steinmeiers eng verbunden. 2017 nahm der damaliger Außenminister Steinmeier an der Kick-Off Veranstaltung des CAPAZ in Bogotá teil, deren Gründung er aktiv unterstützte.

Begleitet wurde Bundespräsident Steinmeier von seiner Ehefrau Elke Bündenbender und einer fünfzigköpfigen Delegation, darunter Mitglieder des Deutschen Bundestages, Vertreter des Auswärtigen Amtes, der Bundesregierung und Journalisten.

Tom Koenigs (links) und Pater de Roux. Foto: Luis Enrique Sierra/CAPAZ.

Tom Koenigs, Sonderbeauftragter für den Friedensprozess in Kolumbien, Peter Ptassek, deutscher Botschafter in Kolumbien, und Hans-Peter Knudsen Quevedo, kolumbianischer Botschafter in Berlin nahmen ebenfalls an dem Besuch teil.

Dialog mit den Institutionen des Friedens

Im CAPAZ Institut traf Frank-Walter Steinmeier auf die Präsidentin des Sondergerichtshofes (JEP), Patricia Linares; die Leiterin der Behörde zur Suche der Verschwundenen (UBPD), Luz Marina Monzón und den Leiter der Wahrheitskommission, Pater Francisco de Roux.

In einem gemeinsamen Gespräch wurden verschiedene Aspekte der drei Behörden erörtert, die Implementierung der Übergangsjustiz in den ruralen Gebieten, die Herausforderungen, mit denen die Behörden konfrontiert sind und die öffentliche Erwartung an deren Arbeit.

Steinmeier stellte konkrete Fragen über die Einbindung der zahlreichen Opfer und die Behandlung der verschiedenen Beteiligten im Konflikt.

Bundespräsident Steinmeier nahm aktiv am Gespräch mit den VertreterInnen der Friedensbehörden. Foto: Luis Enrique Sierra/CAPAZ.

“Der Zeuge” und der Bundespräsident Steinmeier

Nach dem Gespräch besuchten der Bundespräsident und seine Frau die Ausstellungsräume des Claustro San Agustín, in denen derzeit die Fotoausstellung “El testigo” (Der Zeuge) mit über 500 Fotografien von Jesús Abad Colorado zu sehen ist.

In Begleitung des Künstlers und der Kuratorin María Belén Sáez de Ibarra informierte sich Steinmeier über die Arbeit Abads, die während der vergangenen dreißig Jahre entstanden ist. “El testigo” ehrt die Opfer des bewaffneten Konflikts in Kolumbien und macht die Arbeit von Abad Colorado zu einem wichtigen historischen Dokument.

Biodiversität und Venezuela

Weitere Themen, die im Mittelpunkt des Besuches von Bundespräsident Steinmeier standen, waren die Lage im Nachbarland Venezuela und die Auswirkungen auf Kolumbien sowie Treffen mit Institutionen, die sich im Bereich Forschung und Schutz der Biodiversität engagieren.

Der Staatsbesuch in Kolumbien und Ecuador findet im Rahmen der Feierlichkeiten zum “Humboldt-Jahr 2019” statt, das an die Geburt und das Erbe des deutschen Wissenschaftlers, Humanisten und Naturforschers Alexander von Humboldt erinnert.

Jesús Abad berichtete über seine Fotoaustellung. Foto: Luis Enrique Sierra/CAPAZ.

Lesen Sie die Pressemitteilung zum Besuch des Bundespräsidenten in Kolumbien und Ecuador (auf Spanisch).

Pressespiegel (Auswahl):

Sonntag Morgenmagazin (21.2.2019)

Pressestelle JLU Gießen (13.2.2019)

Auswärtiges Amt Website (13.2.2019)

Süddeutsche Zeitung (13.2.2019)

Der Tagesspiegel (13.2.2019)

ZDF (13.2.2019)

Deutsche Welle (13.2.2019)

Frankfurter Rundschau (13.2.2019)

Deutschlandfunk (12.2.2019)

Deutsche Welle (12.2.2019)

Die Welt (11.2.2019)

Neues Deutschland (12.2.2019)

Süddeutsche Zeitung (12.2.2019)

Deutsche Welle (11.2.2019)

Weser Kurier (11.2.2019)

ZDF (11.2.2019)

El Diario.es (11.2.2019)

El Espectador / Colombia 2020 (10.2.2019)

W Radio (10.2.2019)

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CAPAZ publishes Policy Brief on the situation of human rights defenders

“Panorama de las personas defensoras de derechos humanos y líderes sociales en riesgo en Colombia 2018-2019” (Outlook for Human Rights Defenders and Social Leaders at Risk in Colombia 2018-2019) is the first Policy Brief published by the German-Colombian Peace Institute CAPAZ in 2019 and the second in this series. It addresses one of the most critical issues in the Colombian context: the murder and persecution of human rights defenders. Its author is Carlos A. Guevara, researcher in human rights, peace and armed conflict.

In Colombia, violence against human rights defenders has intensified and keeps the important struggles that they exercise and promote in suspense, despite the benefits of the Acuerdo Final (Final Agreement), signed between the Colombian government and the demobilised guerrilla FARC-EP in 2016, has brought to the country.

Despite the willingness of previous and current governments and the proposal of certain mechanisms and countermeasures to resolve this dramatic situation, to date efforts have not been sufficiently effective. The aggressions continue and the number of murdered human rights defenders has increased exponentially since 2016.

Especially at risk are rural leaders linked to Juntas de Acción Comunal (Community Action Councils), peasant associations, ethnic communities as well as advocates for environmental advocacy, land restitution, voluntary substitution of illicit crops and political participation on behalf of vulnerable minorities and rural communities.

The CAPAZ Policy Brief raises the need to unify public policy to prevent attacks, based on the progress made with the Acuerdo Final (Final Agreement) and the proposals of the current government. It also recommends the possibility of restructuring the Unidad Nacional de Protección (National Protection Unit) to make collective protection measures possible. It presents the need to strengthen dialogue and coordination with human rights defenders in order to protect them.

As the author says: “A human rights defender or social leader is in him/herself a person who builds peace, democracy, country and society […] by building bridges between communities, state and governmental institutions in the pursuit to claim their rights.”

We hope that the first CAPAZ Policy Brief in 2019 will provide relevant inputs for policy makers and institutional decision-makers concerning the prevention, protection and investigation of these forms of violence.

 

Download the CAPAZ Policy Brief No. 1-2019 (in Spanish).

 

CAPAZ Policy Briefs Series

The German-Colombian Peace Institute – CAPAZ has conceived the new series of CAPAZ Publications, which includes Policy Briefs. The CAPAZ Policy Briefs will provide evidence from empirical research of high political and social relevance that seeks to support policy definition or decision making.

The CAPAZ Policy Briefs Series aims to highlight proposals and policy recommendations from researchers on issues related to the challenges of building sustainable and lasting peace in Colombia. Through these documents, CAPAZ seeks to facilitate access to scientific knowledge and the transfer of knowledge from research work to society in general and to different political actors in particular.

The CAPAZ Policy Briefs will be published as useful tools for understanding and addressing concrete problems faced by societies in transition. These documents are addressed in particular to those who design, formulate and have the power of proposition and decision in public policies that can address needs resulting from these problems.

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THE NEW ASSOCIATE MEMBERS OF CAPAZ

In accordance with the established in the Governance Statute of the German-Colombian Peace Institute, we are pleased to present our new CAPAZ associate members.

In a meeting held on December 6, 2018, at the CAPAZ office in Bogotá (Cra. 8 No. 7-21, Claustro de San Agustín), the representatives of the founding institutions of the CAPAZ Consortium selected the following German and Colombian higher education institutions as our new associate members:

In Colombia:

Universidad de Antioquia

Universidad de Caldas

Universidad del Cauca

Universidad de Ibagué

Universidad Industrial de Santander

Universidad de Medellín

Universidad del Norte

Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana de Medellín

In Germany:

University of Erfurt (Willy Brandt School of Public Policy)

Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt (Centre for Latin American Studies – ZILAS)

 

We would like to thank all the institutes that applied to be part of our team and we are very happy to welcome on board the ten institutions mentioned above, together with which we will broaden our German-Colombian academic cooperation network through CAPAZ.

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Welcome 2019!

Concepción, Antioquia. Photo: Claudia Maya

Dear friends of CAPAZ:

The year 2018 was fundamental to Colombia’s peace process. The parliamentary and presidential elections brought forth intense debates on the country’s future and that of the peace process. We witnessed important advances in terms of the implementation of the Final Agreement such as the establishment of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace and the Truth, Coexistence, and Non-Repetition Commission, but we also saw that great obstacles have to be overcome in our task of peacebuilding. The lack of safety for human rights defenders and social leaders, and news about massacres and forced displacement are a bloody reminder that peace has, unfortunately, not yet reached the country’s every corner. At the CAPAZ Institute, we are convinced that academia, together with different social and political actors has a lot to offer to successful peacebuilding. To support this work, we have created spaces of debate and critical reflection with a number of civil society partners in different parts of the country to present and discuss the research advances, and the different proposals through which we can strengthen peacebuilding. In the hope that you all enjoyed your holidays and that 2019 is a more peaceful year with many spaces of contribution to reconciliation and peacebuilding, I wish you all a prosperous new year.

Prof. Dr. Stefan Peters

CAPAZ Institute Academic Director

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POSITIVE OUTCOME OF THE CAPAZ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES IN BUCARAMANGA, PASTO, AND MEDELLÍN

The German-Colombian Peace Institute – CAPAZ is strengthening its presence in a number of Colombian regions in order to organise, with its counterparties, spaces that facilitate the projection and visibilisation of the academic and practical work carried out in these regions on the subject of peace.

In November 2018, CAPAZ ran three free entry international conferences in Bucaramanga, Pasto, and Medellín.

We are pleased to share the impressions regarding the academic sessions in these cities, whose shared thematic axis involved some aspects of transitional justice revised from the regions.

Professor Yvonne Suárez (on the right) explained the work of AMOVI. / Photo: AMOVI

Universidad Industrial de Santander, AMOVI, and CAPAZ enable dialogue between the country’s regions

On November 6 and 7, 2018, Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), supported by the Victims’ Oral Memory Archive (AMOVI) and the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Colombia, hosted the International CAPAZ Conference entitled: “Memory, reconciliation, and peacebuilding in the territories: Santander in dialogue with Colombia”.

The event brought together researchers and representatives from civil society organizations in the country’s different regions (Caribbean coast, the Southern Pacífico, Magdalena Medio, Norte de Santander, and Catatumbo, among others) around two main axes:  the role of memory in reconciliation and the importance of aspects related to the environment in territorial peace.

The voices present also considered the interests of the indigenous populations grouped within the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (ONIC) and the Major Government of the Traditional Indigenous Authorities of Colombia (Gobierno Mayor); those of the Afro-Colombian communities that take part in the Black Communities Process in Colombia (PCN); and long-standing peasant associations such as the Valle del Río Peasant Association (Cimitarra).

You can watch: CAPAZ Conference at UIS (Informativo UIS, in Spanish)

The International Conference also offered the possibility for participants to discuss the work of two of the transitional justice instruments: the Truth Commission (CEV) and the Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP). They also discussed the possible contributions that civil society organizations can make based on their research, the gender approaches contained in their mandate, and the scope and limitations of the CEV in the current political context.

CAPAZ’ Academic Director, Prof. Dr. Stefan Peters, during his lecture in Pasto. / Photo: CIESJU

Diversity in the CAPAZ International Conference in Pasto

The Universidad de Nariño in Pasto served as the venue for the CAPAZ International Conference “Transitional Justice and Territorial Peace: Perspectives from South-western Colombia” on November 15 and 16, 2018.

From different thematic approaches and perspectives (ethnic, territorial, international, and cultural), expert speakers analysed the problems and challenges of peacebuilding in some of the departments in south-western Colombia such as Cauca and Nariño.

The academic review was complemented by perspectives and criticisms set out by representatives of the indigenous communities that inhabit the region such as the Awá e Inga, and from the grassroots social processes such as the Asociación de Mujeres Cacaoteras and the Afro-Colombian communities.

The sessions in Pasto, Nariño, gave participants a chance to hear about, reflect on, understand, and discuss the specific dynamics and challenges of territorial peace in south-western Colombia. These problems are not only related to the current conjunctural moment, but also to structural factors such as inequality, social injustice, and the region’s economic development model.

A big number of participants at the CAPAZ Conference at  UdeA. / Photo: Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas UdeA

CAPAZ at Universidad de Antioquia

The CAPAZ international conference in Medellín “The Rights of the Victims in Transitional Justice”, which took place on November 20, 2018, set out an agenda focusing on the analysis of expectations, realities, and challenges implied by the satisfaction of the rights of the victims of the conflict. The Conference was organized with the support of Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Rule of Law Programme.

This analysis was carried out based on the Comprehensive System of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Non-repetition, and on the points and mechanisms set out in the Final Agreement between the government and the demobilised FARC guerrilla.

The analysis also included an examination of crucial topics related to the rights of the victims from a gender approach and a territorial approach, which allowed an identification of the victims’ current unconformities and concerns, and a recognition that we have a long path ahead of us in terms of challenging the structural causes of gender-based violence and impunity.

You may be interested: El Gobierno no les ha cumplido a las víctimas (UdeA Noticias, in Spanish)

From a critical perspective, the discussions reviewed shortcomings, gaps, and advances in the experiences of transitional justice with respect to the victims, not just in Colombia with the Justice and Peace Law, but also in countries like Argentina and Peru.

(From left to right): Prof. Luquegi Gil (UdeA), Juliette Vargas (CAPAZ/CEDPAL), Prof. Gabriel Ignacio Gómez (UdeA) and former Minister and Prof. Yesid Reyes (U. Externado) participated in one panel in Medellín. / Photo: Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas UdeA

A diverse audience took part in the session at Universidad de Antioquia:  students, professors, intellectuals, and even direct victims of the conflict. On the one hand, the victims present were able to express their frustrations with respect to what has been offered so far by the institutions. On the other, in the academic session, they found a space in which they could understand the possibilities in terms of the victims’ rights set out in the Final Agreement, in aspects that are still pending implementation.

CAPAZ wishes to thank those who attended the conference, the speakers, and institutions and people that supported the organisation of the events:

In Bucaramanga: Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), AMOVI (ascribed to the UIS).

In Pasto: Universidad de Nariño (UDENAR), CIESJU (ascribed to UDENAR), Organización La Minga, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia Pasto campus, ICTJ in Colombia.

In Medellín: Universidad de Antioquia (School of law and political science and the Office of international relations).

Of German cooperation in Colombia: the Heinrich Böll Stiftung Foundation, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Rule of Law Programme.

 

Further information: eventos@instituto-capaz.org

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INSTITUTO CAPAZ TRADEMARK

The German-Colombian Peace Institute  – CAPAZ is pleased to inform that the Colombian Superintendence of Industry and Commerce has successfully registered the Institute’s trademark.

All CAPAZ activities are now covered by current Colombian legislation and in accordance with issue No. 11 of the International Nice Classification for trademark registration.

The recognition of The German-Colombian Peace Institute – CAPAZ trademark, its events, and publications, among other activities is a further step towards administrative and institutional consolidation in this first phase of CAPAZ.

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First CAPAZ Conference for Young Researchers in Colombia

The first CAPAZ Conference for young researchers will take place on December 3 and 4, 2018, from 8:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. at Universidad del Rosario (Room 702, Building 2, Calle 12C # 6-25 Sede Claustro) in Bogota, Colombia.

This congress will bring together 16 Colombian and German MA and PhD students, who are researching on relevant issues to the peace process in Colombia in the following areas:

  1. a) Transitional Justice, International Criminal Law, International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights
  2. b) Studies of Memory, Truth Commissions, Social Inequalities

After presenting their work at the Conference, the students will receive comments from Colombian and international professors and experts in the thematic areas. They will also participate as lecturers in the event.

The admission is free of charge and a previous register is not required.

We invite interested people to attend the Conference and to know the current advances of research projects on the implementation of peace in Colombia, from the work of young academics.

Read the conference’s programme (in Spanish).

Further information and contact: eventos@instituto-capaz.org

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THE CAPAZ WINTER SCHOOL 2018 STARTING NEXT WEEK IN BOGOTA

Photo: Claudia Maya

From 26 to 30 November 2018, Colombian and German MA and PhD students and peace-builders from different Colombian regions will participate in workshops, lectures, visits to official institutions, and a theatre event, in order to exchange concepts and practical experiences of memory building, truth and reconciliation in the CAPAZ Winter School 2018 “Memoria, verdad y reconciliación”.

The Winter School will take place in Bogota, Colombia, at the five Colombian founding universities of the CAPAZ Consortium: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad El Rosario, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Universidad de los Andes, and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, which is the general coordinator of the School this year.

Regions of Colombia are present at the CAPAZ Winter School 2018

CAPAZ is pleased to give scholarships for the participation of MA and PhD students of the Universidad del Norte (Barranquilla), Universidad Industrial de Santander (Bucaramanga), Universidad del Valle (Cali), Universidad del Tolima (Ibagué), Universidad de Caldas (Manizales), Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín), Universidad Surcolombiana (Neiva), Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira (Pereira), Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Cali), and Universidad de Los Llanos (Villavicencio).

CAPAZ also funds the participation of peace-builders that are working on peacebuilding with a regional perspective coming from Bahía Solano (Chocó), Mocoa and Puerto Asís (Putumayo), La Montañita (Caquetá), Neiva (Huila), Guarne and Granada (Antioquia), Popayán (Cauca), and Samaniego (Nariño).

MA and PhD students from universities or research centers in Germany will also benefit from CAPAZ’s financial support to participate in the School.

Download the academic programme of the “Winter School CAPAZ 2018: Memory, Truth and Reconciliation”(in Spanish).

Further information and contact:

David Murcia – Pontificia Universidad Javeriana – david.murcia@javeriana.edu.co

Carolina Cerón – Instituto CAPAZ – escuelas@instituto-capaz.org

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CAPAZ UND JLU ZU GAST IM AUSWÄRTIGEN AMT IN BERLIN

(Von links nach rechts): Prof. Dr. Stefan Peters (CAPAZ/JLU); Carlos Holmes Trujillo (Außenminister Kolumbiens); Heiko Maas (Bundesaußenminister); und Prof. Dr. Joybrato Mukherjee (JLU/DAAD). Foto: Thomas Koehler/photothek.net

 

Anlässlich des ersten Besuchs des kolumbianischen Außenministers Carlos Holmes Trujillo in Berlin lud das Auswärtige Amt (AA) am Donnerstag, den 22. November 2018 zu der Konferenz „Partner Kolumbien: Beitrag der Wirtschaft auf dem Weg zum Frieden“ ein. Eröffnet wurde die Veranstaltung durch Bundesaußenminister Heiko Maas und dem kolumbianischen Außenminister Holmes Trujillo.

An der Paneldiskussion „Beitrag von Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft zum Frieden in Post-Konfliktgebieten” nahmen der Präsident der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen (JLU) und Vizepräsident des Deutschen Akademischen Austauschdienstes (DAAD), Prof. Dr. Joybrato Mukherjee und Prof. Dr. Stefan Peters, wissenschaftlicher Direktor des Deutsch-Kolumbianischen Friedensinstituts/Instituto Colombo-Alemán para la Paz (CAPAZ) in Bogotá und Professor für Friedensforschung an der JLU teil.

Zwischen der JLU und kolumbianischen Partneruniversitäten in Kolumbien besteht eine längste formalisierte deutsch-kolumbianische Hochschulkooperation, so wie seit 1963 mit der Universidad de los Andes. Die Universität Giessen leitet die beiden sichtbarsten Leuchtturmprojekte der deutsch-kolumbianischen Wissenschaftskooperation: Das Deutsch-kolumbianische Exzellenzzentrum für Meereswissenschaften (CEMarin) und das Deutsch-kolumbianische Friedensinstitut (Instituto CAPAZ). Beide werden mit Mitteln des Auwärtigen Amts gefördert.

Das CAPAZ Institut wurde von einem zehnköpfigen Konsortium deutscher und kolumbianischer Universitäten ins Leben gerufen. Das Institut bietet einen institutionellen Rahmen für Forschung, Aus- und Weiterbildung, Transfer/Beratung. Ein zentrales Anliegen besteht dabei im Transfer der Forschungsergebnisse der geförderten Projekte in konkrete Politikempfehlungen und in die öffentlichen Debatten. Die vom CAPAZ Institut organisierten Schools und akademischen Veranstaltungen verstehen sich als Ort des Austausches zwischen Studierenden, Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern, EntscheidungsträgerInnen und zivilgesellschaftlichen Friedensakteuren. Die Integration anderer Universitäten, insbesondere aus den vom bewaffneten Konflikt am stärksten betroffenen Kolumbiens ist eines der zentralen Ziele der Aufbauphase des Instituts.

Sie finden die Pressemitteilung der JLU zur Veranstaltung im AA (veröffentlicht am 22.11.2018). Ebenso die Meldungen der JLU durch Facebook und Twitter und die Informationen auf der Website des Auswärtigen Amts.

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CAPAZ PUBLISHES ITS FIRST WORKING PAPER ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE ARMED CONFLICT IN TUMACO, NARIÑO

The German-Colombian Peace Institute, CAPAZ publishes its first working paper “Territorial dynamics of the violence and armed conflict before and after the peace accord with the FARC-EP. Case study: Tumaco, Nariño”.

This paper has been written by researchers Luis Gabriel Salas Salazar and Fabián Eduardo Camelo (Universidad Nacional de Colombia), and Jonas Wolff (Peace Research Institute Frankfurt-PRIF).

Abstract:

From a historical and geographical perspective (1990-2017), this paper analyses the territorial dynamics of the armed conflict and violence recorded in Tumaco, in the department of Nariño, in southwest Colombia.

The text examines the interrelated spatial behaviour of variables such as the presence of armed actors, armed confrontation, the drugs economy and the violence recorded against the civil population.

The Tumaco region, with its high levels of armed confrontation and violence following the signing of the peace accord between the government and the FARC-EP, has always figured as a space subject to dispute, a supplier of illegal economies, and of strategic corridors for residual groups and drug traffickers.

The territorial disputes and the violence recorded in urban Tumaco are a direct reflection of the armed tensions between illegal groups wanting to control the criminal economies and the State Forces wanting to control them in rural Tumaco.

The paper offers crucial information on the key challenges faced by the current peace process in Colombia, but it also contributes to general knowledge on the complex dynamics of crime and violence during the transition to peace.

Keywords:

Peacebuilding; non-State armed groups, drugs economy; post-conflict violence; peace process in Colombia.

Series of CAPAZ working papers:

The purpose of the CAPAZ Working Papers series is to promote an exchange of knowledge, academic debate, and the building of bridges of cooperation, enabling researchers to disseminate and expose the initial results of their on-going investigations, as well as their contributions and approaches to topics dealing with peacebuilding in Colombia.

Access to the CAPAZ Working Papers series is free and regulated by Creative Commons Attribution parameters. Copyright is owned by the author(s) and any total or partial reproduction of the paper (including its visual tools and the data provided) must acknowledge the authors and the first publication. The paper can be reproduced solely for research purposes or personal use. For other purposes authorisation from the author(s) must be requested.

CAPAZ is not responsible for any errors or inaccuracies expressed by the author(s) in the Working Paper or the consequences of their use. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the CAPAZ Institute.

Download the first CAPAZ Working Paper 1-2018 (in Spanish).

Further information: juliana.gonzalez@instituto-capaz.org / juliette.vargas@instituto-capaz.org

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